Basic Computing Using Windows

The Basic Computing Using Windows book introduces the reader to a Windows PC environment. From the contents: computers and peripherals, operating systems and controls, desktop, file systems, concepts and settings, networks and the Internet, email, chat-rooms, and IM.

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Control in an Information Rich World

This report spells out some of the prospects for control in the current and future technological environment; describes the role the field will play in military, commercial, and scientific applications over the next decade; and recommends actions required to enable new breakthroughs in engineering and technology through the application of control research

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Automated Manufacturing Systems with PLCs

This book has been designed for students with some knowledge of technology, including limited electricity, who wish to learn the discipline of practical control system design on commonly used hardware. To this end the book will use the Allen Bradley ControlLogix processors to allow depth. Although the chapters will focus on specific hardware, the techniques are portable to other PLCs. Whenever possible the IEC 61131 programming standards will be used to help in the use of other PLCs

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Dynamics of Machines

The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the two dimensional mechanics of the rigid body. It is divided into three chapters: Dynamic of particles; Plane dynamics of a rigid body; Dynamic Analysis of Plane Mechanisms.

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Vibrations and Waves

This is a text on vibrations and waves for an introductory college physics class. The treatment is algebra-based, with applications of calculus discussed in optional sections. For more information about this book, see its web page. This book is part of the Light and Matter series of introductory physics textbooks

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How To Assemble A Desktop PC

Building a computer can be a very rewarding experience. Since you’re reading this, you’re probably thinking about building your next computer instead of buying one pre-built. This is a very viable option these days and can bring many benefits; you can learn a lot about computer hardware by building one, you get a totally personalized computer, you can choose better components and you may be able to save some money. But even given all of these advantages, there is one really good reason to build instead of buy – because it’s fun.

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The VHDL Cookbook, First Edition

VHDL is a language for describing digital electronic systems. It arose out of the United States Government’s Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program, initiated in 1980. In the course of this program, it became clear that there was a need for a standard language for describing the structure and function of integrated circuits (ICs). Hence the VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) was developed, and subsequently adopted as a standard by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) in the US. The purpose of this booklet is to give readers a quick introduction to VHDL. This is done by informally describing the facilities provided by the language, and using examples to illustrate them. This booklet does not fully describe every aspect of the language. For such fine details, readers should consult the IEEE Standard VHDL Language Reference Manual.

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Topics in dynamics I: Flows

These are the lecture notes for the first term of a course on differential equations, given in Fine Hall the autumn of 1968. The text covers differential calculus, Picard's method, the local structure of vector fields, sums and Lie products of vector fields, self-adjoint operators on Hilbert space, commutative multiplicity theory, extensions of Hermitean operators, sums and Lie products of self-adjoint operators.
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Intel Microprocessors

Purpose of Work
•Get off CPU functional testing / tester treadmill
•Optimize product -content -testers for cost
•Risk manage test quality during migration

•Timeline Overview
•1st and 2nd Generation Structural Testers
–Architectural Choices –Expected Test Content and Flow
•Data from Pentium®4 Processor
•Future Trends
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Data Conversion Handbook

This comprehensive handbook is a one-stop engineering reference. Covering data converter fundamentals, techniques, applications, and beginning with the basic theoretical elements necessary for a complete understanding of data converters, this reference covers all the latest advances in the field. This text describes in depth the theory behind and the practical design of data conversion circuits as well as describing the different architectures used in A/D and D/A converters. Details are provided on the design of high-speed ADCs, high accuracy DACs and ADCs, and sample-and-hold amplifiers. Also, this reference covers voltage sources and current reference, noise-shaping coding, and sigma-delta converters, and much more. The books 900-plus pages are packed with design information and application circuits, including guidelines on selecting the most suitable converters for particular applications.

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Build a Computer from Scratch

Building your own computer system lets you get exactly the computer system that you need. This book will take you through all of the steps to create a powerful computer system. This book contains over 120 photographs to guide you through the process. Learn about all of the components that make up a computer system, such as hard drives, CD/DVD drives, motherboards, processors, memory, cases, power supplies and fans. But most importantly, learn what is compatible with what.


Fundamentals of Multiphase Flow

This book is targeted to graduate students and researchers at the cutting edge of investigations into the fundamental nature of multiphase flows. It is intended as a reference book for the basic methods used in the treatment of multiphase flows. The text presents a unifying approach to the fundamental ideas of multiphase flows. It summarizes those fundamental concepts with relevance to a broad spectrum of multiphase flows.

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(17MB, PDF)

Fuel Cell Handbook

Fuel cells are an important technology for a potentially wide variety of applications including micropower, auxiliary power, transportation power, stationary power for buildings and other distributed generation applications, and central power. These applications will be in a large number of industries worldwide. This edition includes calculation examples for fuel cells for the wide variety of possible applications. The handbook includes a separate section on alkaline fuel cells.

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Handbook of Mathematical Functions

Students and professionals in the fields of mathematics, physics, engineering, and economics will find this reference work invaluable. A classic resource for working with special functions, standard trig, and exponential logarithmic definitions and extensions, it features 29 sets of tables, some to as high as 20 places.

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Hydrodynamics of Pumps

The subject of this monograph is the fluid dynamics of liquid turbomachines, particularly pumps. Rather than attempt a general treatise on turbomachines, we shall focus attention on those special problems and design issues associated with the flow of liquid through a rotating machine. There are two characteristics of a liquid that lead to these special problems, and cause a significantly different set of concerns than would occur in, say, a gas turbine. These are the potential for cavitation and the high density of liquids that enhances the possibility of damaging unsteady flows and forces.
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Handbook of Formulae and Physical Constants

For the use of students and examination candidates, approved by the Interprovincial Power Engineering Curriculum Committee and the Provincial Chief Inspectors' Association's Committee for the standardization of Power Engineer's Examinations in Canada.

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(0.6MB, PDF)

Stepper Motor Control with Microcontroller

This note provides basic implementation details and procedural information to design and assemble a stepper motor system. The controller discussed here is the MC68HC11E9, an 8-bit Motorola microcontroller (MCU). There are many embedded control applications supported by the M68HC11 Family.
The note consists of a general description and gives highlights of implementing a basic stepper motor system application. A step-by-step hardware assembly section is included to promote ease of construction should one desire to build a similar system.
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Chemical Thermodynamics

From the table of contents: introduction, single component systems, multicomponent systems, the ideal solution model, partial molar properties, nonideal solutions, stability, solid-liquid equilibrium, gas solubility and Henry's law, equations of state, chemical reaction equilibria.
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Communication Network Analysis

This is the latest draft of notes written for the graduate course Communication Network Analysis, offered by the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The notes describe many of the most popular analytical techniques for design and analysis of computer communication networks, with an emphasis on performance issues such as delay, blocking, and resource allocation.
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Power Electronics: Devices, Drivers, Applications, and Passive Components

Part 1 covers semiconductor switching devices, their electrical and thermal characteristics and properties. Part 2 describes device driving and protection, while part 3 presents a number of generic applications. The final part, Part 4, introduces capacitors, magnetic components, and resistors, and their characteristics relevant to power electronic applications. Register for the latest version of the book, or download the earlier version without registration.
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(multiple PDF files)

Understanding Electronics Components

This book is meant for those people who want to create electronic devices with their own hands. All components are illustrated and the circuit-symbol is explained in detail. Both simple and complex examples are provided for the beginners. These include resistors, capacitors, transformers, transistors, integrated circuits, etc and each has its own symbol to represent it in an electrical or electronic diagram - called a circuit diagram. In order to understand how a certain device functions, it is necessary to know each symbol and the characteristics of the component. These are the things we will be covering in this book
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Digital Filter Design

The purpose of this book is to provide you with different theoretical and practical approaches to digital filter design. The book covers design of both finite and infinite impulse response filters. In addition, it applies the most popular and most commonly used design methods giving the best solutions. Intuitive explanations and numerous examples contained in this book will help you to develop your understanding of these methods and test your knowledge on concrete issues.
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Introduction To Machine Learning

This book surveys many of the important topics in machine learning circa 1996. The intention was to pursue a middle ground between theory and practice. This book concentrates on the important ideas in machine learning -- it is neither a handbook of practice nor a compendium of theoretical proofs. The goal was to give the reader sufficient preparation to make the extensive literature on machine learning accessible.

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Introduction to PLC controllers

PLC are industrial microcontroller systems where hardware and software are specifically adapted to industrial environment. The key to their success is the fact that you don't have to learn a new programming language to program them. How do they work exactly? How to connect a simple sensor? How to program in ladder diagram? In this book you will find the answers to these questions and more.
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Introduction To Sound Processing

Sound manipulation is an activity that find an increasing number of practitioners in the fields of artistic expression, technology, and science. These people have different goals and different backgrounds, but they greatly benefit from talking to each other using a common language and common tools. This book is aimed at providing such language and mathematical, algorithmic, and computational tools.
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sheet metal forming

In this paper the application of a crystal plasticity model for body centered cubic crystals in the simulation of an sheet metal forming process is discussed.The material model parameters are identified by a combination of a texture approximation procedure and a conventional parameter identification scheme.In the application of a cup drawing process the model shows an improvement of the strain and earing prediction as well as the qualitative spring back results in comparison with a conventional phenomenological model
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Best Ebook about Electromagnetic

1 Classical Electrodynamics
1.1.1 Coulombs law
1.1.2 The electrostatic field
1.2.1 Ampères law
1.2.2 The magnetostatic field
1.3.1 Equation of continuity for electric charge
1.3.2 Maxwells displacement current
1.3.3 Electro motive force
1.3.4 Faradays law of induction
1.3.5 Maxwells microscopic equations
1.3.6 Maxwells macroscopic equations
Electromagnetic Waves
2.1 The wave equations
2.1.1 The wave equationfor E
2.1.2 The wave equationfor B
2.1.3 Thetime-independentwaveequationfor E
and more
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Digital Filter

In signal processing, the function of a filter is to remove unwanted parts of the signal, such as random noise, or to extract useful parts of the signal, such as the components lying within a certain frequency range
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Electromagnetism for Electronic Engineers

Electromagnetism is fundamental to the whole of electrical and electronic engineering. It provides the basis for understanding the uses of electricity and for the design of the whole spectrum of devices from the largest turbo-alternators to the smallest microcircuits. This book starts with conventional sequence of presentation, beginning with electrostatics, then moving to current electricity, the magnetic effects of currents, electromagnetic induction and electromagnetic waves.

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Basic Engineering Mathematics

Multiple Integrals
1. Double Integrals
(a) Regions of Integration
(b) Iterated Integrals
(c) Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates
Triple Integrals
Innite Sequences & Series
1. Sequences and Series
2. Convergence and Tests for Convergence
Vectors in the Plane
2. Dot and Cross product
3. Lines and Planes in Space
4. Vector Methods for Measuring Distance in R
Laplace Transforms
1. Denition
(a) Linearity
(b) Inverse Laplace Transform
Properties of Laplace Transforms
(a) Dierentiation
(b) Integration
(c) Shifting on the s-axis
(d) Shifting on the t-axis

Cable Industry Considerations

Wireless Home Networking TechnologyHome networking evolved over the last few years into an affordable technology
that can be applied to cable customers.Many home networking alternatives were proposed over the last few years. Wireless home networking emerged asthe most promising solution in terms of consumer and operator benefits.

We will compare the wireless home networking variants to other alternative
home networking technologies and discuss the wireless home networking options. We will focus especially on IEEE 802.11 and its various extensions, and discuss what features are important for addressing the Cable industry needs
and their importance to enable new revenue opportunities.

DC motors & fault analysis

Abstract—Over the last 20 years, Current Signature Analysis (CSA) has become an established tool for online fault analysis of AC Induction motors. Presently, very little research has been performed using current signature analysis on DC motors. This paper is a brief introduction to online fault diagnosis of DC motors using current signature analysis.

Index Terms—Current Signature Analysis, DC Motors, Armature, Field, Motor Testing, and Measurement.

Fully Digital implemented Delta-Sigma Analog to Digital Converter

One of the most challenging tasks in Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) design is to adapt the cicuitry to ever new CMOS process technology. For digital circuits the number of gates per square mm app. doubles per chip generation. Integration of analog parts in newer deep submicron technologies is much more tough and additionally complicated because the usable voltage ranges are decreasing with every new integration step.

Designing Analog Chips

Number of pages: 242
Description:A comprehensive introduction to CMOS and bipolar analog IC design. The book presumes no prior knowledge of linear design, making it comprehensible to engineers with a non-analog background. The emphasis is on practical design, covering the entire field with hundreds of examples to explain the choices. Concepts are presented following the history of their discovery.
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Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

Number of pages: 256
Description:Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is the author's story about his friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future.
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Understanding Physics

Description:Understanding Physics is an introductory book focusing on simple explanations of basic physics concepts. The book is also sprinkled with general articles on engineering to help you understand how physics is applied in the real world.
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Wireless Networking in the Developing World

Number of pages: 425
Description:This book was created by a team of individuals who each, in their own field, are actively participating in the ever-expanding Internet by pushing its reach farther than ever before. The massive popularity of wireless networking has caused equipment costs to continually plummet, while equipment capabilities continue to increase. By applying this technology in areas that are badly in need of critical communications infrastructure, more people can be brought online than ever before, in less time, for very little cost.
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Three Phase Circuits

Balanced Three Phase Voltages.
Positive Sequence Voltages
Negative Sequence Voltages
Identify the main components of three-phase circuit.
Understand the role of each main components of three-phase circuit.
Differentiate between the balanced voltages phases
Imagine the positive and negative sequence voltages opposite direction

Download files about Earthing

Sizing of circuit protective conductorsThere are several factors which may influence ordetermine the size required for a circuit protectiveconductor. A minimum cross-sectional area of2copper is required for any separate circuit2.5 mmprotective conductor, i.e. one which is not part ofacable or formed by a wiring enclosure or contained insuch an enclosure.

Control Systems

This document provides guidance for establishing secure industrial control systems (ICS). These ICS, which include supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS), and other control system configurations such as skid-mounted Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are often found in the industrial control sectors. ICS are typically used in industries such as electric, water and wastewater, oil and natural gas, transportation, chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, and discrete manufacturing (e.g., automotive, aerospace, and durable goods.) SCADA systems are generally used to control dispersed assets using centralized data acquisition and supervisory control. DCS are generally used to control production systems within a local area such as a factory using supervisory and regulatory control. PLCs are generally used for discrete control for specific applications and generally provide regulatory control.

SCADA Protocols

Control of Boiler Operation using PLC – SCADA

Transformer Protection

Many smaller substations have no control house and do not need one since the power transformer is protected by power fuses; eliminating the need for relays, a battery bank and charger, and communications equipment. Typically these small substations have been located in remote rural areas which have very light loads; however, rural isn't quite as rural as it once was, and these substations are now being loaded at much higher levels. With these increased loads due to the increased number of customers served by the substations, the utility may find it desirable and/or necessary to upgrade the power transformer's protection from a set of power fuses to a circuit switcher. The utility would understandably like to accomplish this upgrade at the lowest possible cost without sacrificing reliability, and if it was not necessary to add a control house to the substation a significant cost savings would be realized. This paper provides full information on a circuit switcher solution which can provide current sensing, fault interruption, an uninterruptible power supply, a capacitor trip device, a digital protection relay, and an RTU--all integrated into a single product package to produce full functionality at a fraction of the cost of adding a substation control house. This solution, its full capabilities, and its advantages to the utility (financial, functional, and otherwise) will be covered in this paper.
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Reactive Power Supply and Consumption

Table of Contents
Preface .......................................................................................................................... 2Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 3
Chapter 1 Introduction:What Is Reactive Power and Why Are We Concerned About It?................................ 17
Chapter 2 Physical Characteristics and Costs of Reactive Power in AC Systems.... 25
Chapter 3 History of Reactive Power Pricing............................................................45
Chapter 4 International Reactive Power Markets................................................. 59
Chapter 5 Existing Reactive Power Issues................................................................ 65
Chapter 6 Pricing and Procurement Options for Reactive Power............................. 85
Chapter 7 Conclusions, Recommendations and Questions......................................105

Reactive power

The notion of reactive power has been introduced long time ago because of its advantages to describethe behaviour of a power system. Among these advantages are the facts that the reactive power is ascalar quantity (therefore easy to manipulate) and that it is conserved over any network.Over the time, the meaning of the original concept of reactive power has been lost and today the“reactive power” is used for the maximum reactive power that flows through a piece of electricnetwork. The change of meaning is the origin of a few misconceptions that are present in almost everytextbook today. This article reanalyzes the reactive power concept, identifies the present contradictionsand defines clearly the differences between reactive and active power.

Mechanics of Materials

Concept of Stress
Review of Statics
Structure Free-Body Diagram
Component Free-Body Diagram
Method of Joints
Stress Analysis
Axial Loading: Normal Stress
Centric & Eccentric Loading
Shearing Stress
Shearing Stress Examples
Bearing Stress in Connections
Stress Analysis & Design Example
Rod & Boom Normal Stresses
Pin Shearing Stresses Pin Bearing Stresses
Stress in Two Force Members
Stress on an Oblique Plane
Maximum Stresses
Stress Under State of Stress
Factor of Safety
more books on mechanics of material

Central Air Conditioning

Regardless of the style of the system, the basic
components and method of operation are similar for all
electric compression-cycle systems. The major elements
are an evaporator coil, a condenser coil, fans to circulate
air over both coils, tubing to carry a refrigerant between
the two coils, a compressor to move the refrigerant
through the system, and a metering device to regulate the
rate of refrigerant low.
Air conditioning systems use several basic principles of
physics to remove heat from within a house: (1) a refrigerant
absorbs heat when it changes from a liquid to a gas; (2) a refrigerant releases heat when it changes from a gas to
a liquid; and (3) heat moves from a medium at a high
temperature to a medium at a lower temperature.

Simulink / Matlab Tutorial - Low Pass Filter

.Ideal low pass filter
.Simple RCow pass filter
.Simulink Demonstration
.Matlab Demonstration
-transfer function
-bode(system magnitude & phase plots -f,w)

Storm Sewer Maintenance

This chapter of the Toolbox describes various maintenance practicesfor the separate storm sewer system and provides a few easy tips forconducting the work in a way that helps protect the environment:ïInspecting the systemïCleaning and repairing storm sewer pipes and stormdrain inletsïCleaning ditches and stream channelsïMaintaining detention ponds and other stormwatertreatment devicesA handy storm sewer system checklist is provided on thenext page.

Electric Machinery Fundamentals


Download Matlab ebooks

Here we present a big collection of Matalb ebooks

Matlab Tutorial

Matlab Reference

Matlab Primer

Matlab Tutorial+

Getting Started with Matlab

R-Matlab Interface

Introduction to Matlab

Using Matlab in Linear Algebra

MATLAB array manipulation tips and tricks

Download Free Engineering Books.

How to download free engineering books from our site just after reading any summary of a book you will see a red link just right click and choose save target as and you will get the book downloaded

Turbomachinery Basics.

This file talks about Basic conepts of turbomachinery
number of pages 15
size 3,2 mb

Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Number of pages: 189
Description:This book, Basics of Fluid Mechanics, describes the fundamentals of fluid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the fluid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus, physics, etc.
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Advances in Service Robotics

Number of pages: 342
Description:This book consists of 18 chapters about current research results of service robots. Topics covered include various kinds of service robots, development environments, architectures of service robots, Human-Robot Interaction, networks of service robots and basic researches such as SLAM, sensor network, etc. This book has some examples of the research activities on Service Robotics going on around the globe, but many chapters in this book concern advanced research on this area and cover interesting topics.
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An Introduction to Intelligent and Autonomous Control

Number of pages: 448
Description:This work provides an introduction to the vital and emerging area of intelligent control by leading researchers in the area. The fundamental theory, architectures and perspectives on intelligent control are presented. Approaches to intelligent control, including expert control, planning systems, fuzzy control, neural control and learning control are studied in detail.
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Aerial Vehicles

Number of pages: 320
Description:From the table of contents: Design and Development of a Fly-by-Wireless UAV Platform; Advanced UAV Trajectory Generation: Planning and Guidance; Modeling and Control Prototyping of Unmanned Helicopters; Flight Control System Design Optimization via Genetic Programming; DC Supply System Detector of UAV; Autonomous Formation Flight: Design and Experiments; UAV Path Planning in Search Operations; Objectively Optimized Earth Observing Systems; UAS Safety in Non-segregated Airspace; Robust Path-Following for UAV Using Pure Pursuit Guidance; and much more.
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All About Circuits

Description:This site provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics. The information provided is great for both students and hobbyists who are looking to expand their knowledge in this field. The books are a continuous piece of work, and will be updated over time.
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Advances in Robotics, Automation and Control

Number of pages: 472
Description:The book presents an excellent overview of the recent developments in the different areas of Robotics, Automation and Control. Through its 24 chapters, this book presents topics related to control and robot design; it also introduces new mathematical tools and techniques devoted to improve the system modeling and control. An important point is the use of rational agents and heuristic techniques to cope with the computational complexity required for controlling complex systems. Through this book, we also find navigation and vision algorithms, automatic handwritten comprehension and speech recognition systems that will be included in the next generation of productive systems developed by man.
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Adaptive Control: Stability, Convergence, and Robustness

Number of pages: 378
Description:The objective of this book is to give the major results, techniques of analysis and new directions of research in adaptive systems. The authors give a clear, conceptual presentation of adaptive methods, to enable a critical evaluation of these techniques and suggest avenues of further development. The book presents deterministic theory of identification and adaptive control. The focus is on linear, continuous time, single-input single output systems.
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Adaptive Control

Number of pages: 380
Description:With the efforts of many control researchers, the adaptive control field is abundant in mathematical analysis, programming tools, and implementational algorithms. The authors of each chapter in this book are the professionals in their areas. The results in the book introduce their recent research results and provide new idea for improved performance in various control application problems. There are 16 chapters discussing the issues of adaptive control application to model generation, adaptive estimation, output regulation and feedback, electrical drives, optical communication, neural estimator, simulation and implementation.
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A Pragmatic Introduction to the Art of Electrical Engineering

Number of pages: 142
Description:Each of the following chapters will begin with a problem - How do you build a system to do such and such. This will be followed by a discussion of the background material you will need to interface the BASIC Stamp so as to solve the problem. The hope is that this approach will not only yield a solid understanding of electrical engineering fundamentals, but will also promote actual skill at designing and building functional electronic systems. Download or read it online here:
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Mathematical Theory of Communication

by Claude Shannon
Number of pages: 55
Description:The person who wrote this paper is the father of modern communication theory, Claude Shannon. In this seminal work Shannon presents results that were previously found nowhere else, and today many professors refer to it as the best exposition still on the subject of the mathematical limits on communication (such as bandwidth). Further, it laid the modern foundations for what is now coined Information Theory. Classic work.
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A Heat Transfer Textbook, Third Edition

A Heat Transfer Textbook, Third Edition by John H. Lienhard IV, John H. Lienhard V
Publisher: Phlogiston Press 2003ISBN/ASIN: 0971383529ISBN-13: 9780971383524Number of pages: 762
Description:This textbook is an introduction to heat and mass transfer oriented toward engineering students. The subjects covered include heat conduction, forced and natural convection, thermal radiation, boiling, condensation, heat exchangers, and mass transfer. The book includes worked examples and end-of-chapter exercises. The third edition (2003) has been extensively revised and updated from the old second edition (1987).
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Shielded Metal Arc Welding Guidelines

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or Stick welding is a process which melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc between a coated metal electrode and the workpiece. The electrode outer coating, called flux, assists in creating the arc and provides the shielding gas and slag covering to protect the weld from contamination. The electrode core provides most of the weld filler metal
The power in a welding circuit is measured in voltage and current. The voltage (Volts) is governed by the arc length between the electrode and the workpiece and is influenced by electrode diameter. Current is a more practical measure of the power in a weld circuit and is measured in amperes (Amps).


Submerged Arc Welding

A Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) option that combined the advantages of AC and DC Submerged Arc Welding was not possible until now.A high speed one-side submerged arc welding process of welding speed up to 1.5m/ min (16mm) has been developed for shipping of double-hull VLCC. In the new process, welding wires and fluxes as same as for a ordinary process are used. Electrode numbers are increased from three to four. Leading two electrodes fuse a root of a groove and form a underside (uranami) bead. Trailing two electrodes shape a good surface appearance bead and penetration. In case of 16mm thickness plate, total 3,000A welding current of leading two electrodes and total 1,500A of trailing electrodes are necessary to obtain good one-side weld. The new system has been practically applied to block assembly lines

Sieve Plate Tower

Design a distillation column to separate ethylene oxide from ethylene
oxide water system. In this system a small amount of ethylene and traces of
acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are present. Comparing with the quantities
of the ethylene oxide and water present in the system, the amount of
ethylene and others are negligible. So it is considered as a binary system.
The distillation column operates at a pressure of 1 atmosphere pressure
(absolute). The feed entering is a mixture of 193.18 Kg moles of water,
95.133 Kg moles of ethylene oxide. The distillate is 99.9-mole % pure
ethylene oxide and the residue will contain 0.1 mole % ethylene oxide.

Oil Circuit Breakers

Oil circuit breakers (OCBs) can be a real challenge for thermographers as they are an indirect measurement. Small temperature rises on the outside surface seen by the infrared camera, also known as a thermal imager can represent large temperature rises internally. This means great care must be taken, as a good understanding of surface emissivity and background temperature can be crucial when dealing with temperature rises of a few degrees C. Fortunately, most OCBs are painted with a matte finish, nonmetallic paint and have relatively high emissivities,
approaching 0.95.
This paper presents some OCB thermography data and examines problem severity using the watt loss calculation software developed by Dr. Madding and presented at InfraMation 2001. Post mortem photos of an OCB’s internals also lend strong validation to the calculation and the calculation software.
Using the calculation software is outlined and the procedures discussed, such as geometrical, thermographic and load measurements. Sample calculations are given to show the sensitivity of an OCB’s surface temperature rise to internal electrical resistance and other parameters. As a matter of further interest we add a lightning arrester power loss calculation.
Keywords: Infrared thermography, lightning arrester, heat transfer, convection, radiation, oil circuit breakers, watt
loss, power loss, internal electrical resistance, thermal balance, condition based maintenance, predictive

Circuit for a clock/calculator Incrementing signal hold

A watch/calculator is disclosed which employs a holdcircuit to hold clock incrementing pulses when datafrom the clock is transferred to calculator circuitry oran arithmetic operation is performed on the data. Whenthe time data is returned from the calculator circuitry tothe clock circuitry or the arithmetic operation is com-pleted, the hold circuit releases any held incrementingsignal so that an increment signal is not lost, even whenthe time data is momentarily out of the clock circuitryin the calculator circuitry or other operations are beingperformed on the time data. Thus, when the time data isreturned to the clock circuitry or the operation is com-pleted, the data is incremented or updated as it wouldhave been normally

Primary Relays

We usually think of an electric power system in terms of its more impressive parts—the big generating stations, transformers, high-voltage lines, etc. While these are some of the basic elements, there are many other necessary and fascinating components. Protective relaying is one of these The role of protective relaying in electric-power-system design and operation is explained by a brief examination of the over-all background. There are three aspects of a power system that will serve the purposes of this examination
Primary Relays

Matlab Commands

Matlab has a multitude of syntax and basic commands. Begining to program
in a new language can be a daunting task. This document is meant as a help
to make getting started with Matlab a bit easier. Listed below is a few of the
basic commands and a few of their properties. This list is not exhaustive, nor
is it meant to be. The Matlab command ’help’ is your friend
Matlab command

Strong stabilization of MIMO systems

In this paper, the strong stabilization problem of multivariable linear time-invariant systems is considered. The approach is based on state-space stable projection. The formulation is reduced to find a full rank constant output feedback. The computations involved are simpler than other methods
Strong stabilization of MIMO systems

Wireless Fair Queuing Algorithm

Wireless networks have unreliable channels that experience bursty and location-dependent errors. Several fair queuing algorithms have been proposed in order to provide QoS in presence of errors in a fair manner. However, most of these algorithms are unpractical as they require perfect channel predication or do not work well with the Link Layer. Wireless Fair Queuing with Retransmission (WFQ-R) algorithm was recently suggested to address these problems by penalizing flows that use wireless resources without permission in the link layer. However, the WFQ-R algorithm is based on Stopand- Wait LLR scheme which also costs the network extensive delay and low utilization. In this paper, a new wireless fair queuing based on the WFQ-R algorithm is proposed to work with the window-based error control schemes in the link layer. The proposed algorithm has shown outstanding results compared with WFQ-R in terms of lower queuing delay, better throughput and fairly allocated resources

Simulaworks, System Simulator 1.0

SimulaWorks package is a general purpose simulator, it supports an open set of simulation languages and AI techniques.

SimulaWorks can be used to construct various system types like control loops, signal processing, logic and hardware circuits, manufacturing systems, production lines, traffic systems, complicated algebraic calculation, optimization and search problems, state diagrams and even graphs, presentation using graphics, run-able flow charts, and more...

Many libraries are implemented for this simulator for example:

Control Library.

Mathematics Library.

GPSS Library.

Petri Nets Library.

Active Flow Chart Library.

Smart Draw Library.

Hardware/Logic Library.

SimulaWorks provided with Power Matrix script language, which is matrix-based language that supports most programming features beside the easiness and safety, it comes with large library of routines that support most matrices operations.

Learn Reactive Power

Reactive power is a quantity that is normally only defined for alternating current (AC) electrical systems. Our U.S. interconnected grid is almost entirely an AC system where the voltages and currents alternate up and down 60 times per second (not necessarily at the same time). In that sense, these are pulsating quantities. Because of this, the power being transmitted down a single line also “pulsates” -although it goes up and down 120 times per second rather than 60 Let’s go back to this notion that voltage and current may not go up and down at the same time. When the voltage and current do go up and down at the same time, only real power is transmitted. When the voltage and current go up and down at different
times, reactive power is being transmitted.
Learn Reactive Power

DSSS Receiver Using Simulink and Hardware Optimization

A Simulink® model for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
(DSSS) receiver is presented. Using data-path size as an
additional parameter in the model blocks made it possible
to do the hardware optimization of the receiver on the
block-by-block basis. The effect of the round-off errors to
the bit-error rate (BER) of the receiver is quantified for
each block in the model. Different functional parts of the
receiver, such as analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital
down-converter (DDC), matched filter, are shown to have
different sensitivity to the data-path size. Using
multivariable optimization, one can use the model to
minimize the hardware implementation with respect to the
Digital down-converter, matched filter, analog-to-digital
converter round-off error
DSSS Receiver Using Simulink and Hardware Optimization

Fieldbus Connection in The Visual Basic

The paper describes a new Windows based communication package which enables
standard Windows applications such as Excel and Access, and user designed
applications written in object orientated programming languages, such as Visual
Basic, to communicate with transducers and actuators via a fieldbus such as P-NET,
together with other standardised fieldbus types.
The paper includes examples of a simple Visual Basic programs, which display
and control field variables on a PC screen using P-NET transducers and
DSSS Receiver Using Simulink and Hardware Optimization

Rotating Electrical Machines

Most people, not only in the industrialized countries, are very dependent in their daily lives on the existence of rotating electrical machines
Rotating electrical machines are very important in all sectors of the modern society. For infrastructure, industry, service functions and for the domestic sector. The development has been fascinating and new applications and
requirements still continue to push the technology further. A brief review, mainly based on the development in a small, industrialized country as Sweden will be presented and some conclusions discussed
Rotating Electrical Machines

Electric Power Generation

We’ll see how fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are used to produce mechanical motion and how that mechanical motion is used to produce electric power. We’ll also examine solar and wind power generation Since the electric current extracts energy from the generator, something must do work on it to keep it turning.
When you turn a bicycle generator rapidly by hand, you can tell whether it’s part
of a completed circuit. If it isn’t part of a circuit, the generator turns relatively easily. If it is, the generator is hard to turn. Why?
we will talk also sbout Heating and Cooling the Steam , Solar Cells and Wind and Water Power
Electric Power Generation

Pure Sine Wave Inverter

Pure Sine Wave Inverter
Block Diagram & Schematic
The inverter will converts 12 Volt dc from battery into 110 Volt ac, 50 Hz, sine
wave.the block dagram and schemnatic circuit of the inverter are shown in file Pulse train as shown in figures 5 is produced interchangeably from port (A)
and port (B) by microcontroller 89S2051 during the positive half and negative half of the sine wave. The pulse train is then inputted to the MOSFET power switching
circuit, which is next directed to the primary side of the transformer. Output of the secondary side is shown in Figure 6, which then be filtered resulting in the sine wave as seen in figure 7, where amplitude attenuation can reach up to 50%. Measured inverter output THD reaches 5-8%, where the largest harmonics appeared to be the second and third harmonics as shown in figure 8
Pure Sine Wave Inverter
Pure Sine Wave Inverter

Grounding in Apartment Building

Q: The calculated load for an apartment building is 665 amperes, 120/240 volts. May the service-entrance conductors be two sets of parallel 350 Kcmil Type THWN copper conductors in separate raceways? I am using Table 310.15(B)(6) and doubling the ampacity of 350 Kcmil copper conductors to obtain an ampacity of 700?

A: The special or elevated ampacities of conductors permitted by Table 310.16(B)(6) stops at 400 amperes. It does not include elevated ampacities for service-entrance conductors in parallel.

The minimum size service-entrance conductors for a calculated load of 665 amperes is two sets of 400 Kcmil Type THWN copper or other copper insulated conductors with 75°C or 90°C insulation in two separate raceways. These conductors may be protected by a 700-ampere overcurrent protective device.
Grounding in Apartment Building

Embedded Robotics

Recently sensor networks research demonstrated the potential of networked embedded devices as a way to pervasively instrument the physical world. We argue that the same class of devices can be highly valuable to pursue unforeseen developments in the robotics area, especially in the networked and ubiquitous robotics subdomains. Our main contributions are a platform for Networked Embedded Robotics and its supporting software. We believe it to be the first publicly available design that is built from cheap commercial, non specialized hardware, while at the same time retaining compatibility with the majority of existing solutions like standard motes.
Embedded Robotics

Power Directional Relay

Phase distance relays are commonly applied on the low voltage side of a transformer to protect higher voltage lines The Compensator Distance Element Principle is a supe-
rior design for accurately applying distance relays through transformers. It is unaffected by common delta wye transformer connections and basically measures positive-sequence impedance Compensator Distance Elements can be affected by load,
causing the relay to over- or underreach Phase-pair distance relay designs can be applied, but relay reaches must be analyzed when reaching through transformer banks.
Power Directional RelayPower Directional Relay2

Harmonics in Electric Power Systems

Harmonics cause
ß Transformers to overheat
ß Transformer secondary voltage distortion
ß Increased power system losses
ß Telephone and wired communication systems
ß Neutral overloads
Other harmonic issues
ß Watt-hour meters
ß May read high or low
ß Protective relays
ß May not sense RMS values
ß Nuisance trip or fail to trip
ß Digital clocks
ß May run fast
ß Use full sized or oversized neutral conductors
ß Oversize or harmonic rate transformers
ß Detune system (move capacitors, install reactors)
ß Filter (install passive or active harmonic filters
Harmonics in Electric Power Systems

Battery Chargers

A battery charger is an electrical/electronic device that converts the incoming AC line voltage into a regulated DC voltage to meet the charging needs of the respective battery Although today’s industrial battery charging market is dominated by ferroresonant and SCR type chargers, new switchmode technologies are making headways into the industrial battery charger markets Battery charging is a complex electrochemical process, in which the discharged electric energy must be replenished from the electric network.
Download link

Shift Registers

Shift registers are a type of sequential logic circuit, mainly for storage of
digital data. They are a group of flip-flops connected in a chain so that
the output from one flip-flop becomes the input of the next flip-flop.
Most of the registers possess no characteristic internal sequence of states.
All flip-flop is driven by a common clock, and all are set or reset
Shift Registers

Electrical System Protection

Electrical System Protection
Fuses Vs. Breakers
If a circuit breaker is not properly maintained, it will derate and require re-calibration. The NEMA Low-Voltage Standard states “after a performance at or near its interrupting rating (IR), it is not to be inferred that the circuit breaker can again meet its IR without being inspected and if necessary, repaired.” If the breaker is put back into operation without being repaired, a serious safety hazard could exist. These maintenance issues do not exist with fuses because once they operate they are always replaced with a brand new fuse.
Electrical System Protection

Electronic Stability Control Program

Vehicles itted with Electronic Stability Control have over 50% fewer single-vehicle accidents than conventional vehicles, according to a recent American study Electronic stability control uses sensors to detect when a vehicle is straying from the intended direction of the driver. Sophisticated electronics then take over the brakes and engine to bring the vehicle back under control.Electronic stability control is fitted standard to most luxury cars and late model luxury four-wheel drives such as the Range Rover and also to an increasing number of popular passenger vehicles (see list below)
Electronic Stability Control Program
Electronic Stability Control Program
Electronic Stability Control Program

Electronic Control Installation Guide

This guide provides general information covering installation and wiring of
Woodward electronic controls. It cannot cover all application sites. Because each
site has its own conditions, it may be necessary to solve problems in ways not
mentioned in this manual. It is sometimes necessary to eliminate problems by
trial-and-error techniques. Contact Woodward for assistance.

Electronic controls can be affected by conducted and radiated electrical
interference just as hydromechanical controls can be affected by shock,
vibration, and changing oil supply pressure. Low voltage, low current, and high
impedance signals are more sensitive to electrical interference than high voltage,
high current, and low impedance signals.
Electronic Control Installation Guide

Fridge Door Alarm

B1___________3V Battery (2 AA 1.5V Cells in series
SW1__________Miniature SPST slide Switch
R1____________10K 1/4W Resistor
R2___________Photo resistor (any type)
C1____________10nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C2___________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
R3,R4________100K 1/4W Resistors
D1,D2_______1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
IC1___________4060 14 stage ripple counter and
oscillator IC
BZ1__________Piezo sounder (incorporating 3KHz
Q1___________BC337 45V 800mA NPN Transistor
Fridge Door Alarm

Generator-Voltage System

“generator leads” applies to the circuits between the generator terminals and the low- voltage terminals of the GSU transformers. The equipment selected depends upon the distance between the generator and transformer, the capacity of the generator,the type of generator breakers employed, and the economics of the installation. The equipment generally associated with the generator-voltage system includes switchgear; instrument transformers for metering, relaying, and generator excitation systems;neutral grounding equipment; and surge protection equipment.
Generator-Voltage System

Wireless Transmission of Electricity

Different technologies are now found so far for wireless transmission of electricity and we discussed the need for a wireless system of energy transmission cound we construct them in real practices and what are their advantages ,disadvantages, and the economical side in our paper we will discuss the following
1.the microwave power transmission (MPT"sloar poer satellite")
2.fibre lasers for wireless power transmission
3.tesla theory
there are alot of papers talking about wirless transmission of electricity but the commerical technologies are yet to be materialized
Key words – Wireless transmission, Tesla theory, Microwave
power transmission, Fiber lasers, Collaborative research
Download File

Digital-to-Analog & Analog-to-Digital Circuits

To investigate the operation of a Digital-to-Analog converter and an Analog-to-Digital converte
Suggested Reading
Chapter 10, Digital Systems, Principals and Applications; Tocci
Circuit Simulator (MultiSIM or an equivalent)
Most physical variables, such as temperature and pressure, are analog in nature. The following diagram shows the basic elements required to interface analog and digital systems

Analog-to-Digital (ADC) Converter: A device that converts an analog input into a
corresponding digital output.
Digital-to-Analog (DAC) Converter: A device that converts a digital input value into a corresponding analog output.
Digital-to-Analog & Analog-to-Digital Circuits

Phased Arrays for Pipeline Girth Weld Inspections

Ultrasonic phased arrays offer significant advantages over radiography for pipeline weld inspections: they have higher detection rates for critical planar defects (i.e. cracks and lack of fusion), better defined interpretation, vertical sizing capability for Engineering Critical Assessment, no safety hazards, no licensing issues, no chemical wastes, and no requirement to evacuate the area. Phased arrays also offer major advantages over multiprobe systems and manual ultrasonics.
Pipelines are typically constructed by joining sections of pipe together, using either manual or automated welding. Since pipelines operate at a high percentage of yield strength, these welds must be constructed to a high standard. The advent of higher strength steels, high demand for pipelines, greater environmental concerns, thinner pipe walls and improved technology have all lead to more demanding inspection requirements.
Phased Arrays for Pipeline Girth Weld Inspections

Pipeline Girth Weld Inspections using Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

Pipeline Girth Weld Inspections using Ultrasonic Phased Arrays
Automated ultrasonics (AUT) is rapidly replacing radiography worldwide for
gas pipeline girth weld inspections. Compared with radiography, mechanized
ultrasonics is more reliable, faster, has better detection of critical Lack of
Fusion defects, and poses no safety hazard. Phased arrays are the latest
development in AUT, and present major improvements over conventional
multiprobe ultrasonics. Phased array probe pans are lighter and smaller; scans
are quicker due to the smaller probe pan; phased arrays are considerably more
flexible for changes in pipe dimensions or weld profiles, and for different scan
patterns for unusual defects; special scans can be made for specific problem
Pipeline Girth Weld Inspections using Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

Electro-mechanical testing of a liquid nitrogen filled power transformer

To remove the environmental and safety hazards associated with power transformers, the authors have investigated the use of liquid nitrogen as a replacement for transformer oil. This paper details tests performed to determine new design rules and efficiency expectations of liquid nitrogen filled power transformers (Enviro-Transformers). The tests include dielectric strength testing of liquid nitrogen and mechanical strength testing of standard transformer insulating materials submerged in liquid nitrogen. Efficiency and dissipation factor tests were performed on two
industry standard 10 kVA, 50 Hz, 11/0.24 kV single-phase transformers. One transformer was filled with oil and operated at room temperature, the other was filled with liquid nitrogen and operated at 77oK.
Electro-mechanical testing of a liquid nitrogen filled power transformer

Ferroresonance Phenomenon in Power Transformers

This paper reports on the results of recent research and
development efforts to study and assess various impacts of
ferroresonance phenomenon on operating performance of power
transformers and to investigate ways to mitigate the effects of such
phenomenon. Three-phase core-type transformers are used in the study.
The results of the technical investigation and the associated
ferroresonance experimental work performed showed that ferroresonance
can cause dangerous overvoltages and overcurrents in three-phase core-
type transformers. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to
determine the impact of various design and operating parameters on the
resulting overvoltages and overcurrents caused by ferroresonance.

KEY WORDS: Power system transients, Ferroresonance, Transformers,
Sensitivity analysis.
Ferroresonance Phenomenon in Power Transformers

Distance Relay Fundamentals

Coupling capacitor voltage transformers are an economical
way to obtain the potential required to operate distance (and
directional) type relays. They also provide a means to couple
communication channels to the power line for use with vari-
ous relaying schemes. Unfortunately, a CCVT may not repro-
duce the primary voltage exactly and can introduce significant
error into the distance relay measurement The transient error
that is produced by the CCVT becomes more pronounced as
the change in the voltage from prefault to fault is increased (a
fault at the end of a line with a high source to line impedance
(ZS/ZL) impedance ratio, for example). A typical CCVT tran-
sient is shown in Figure 18. If a transient like this were to
occur for a fault at the end of a line with a high ZS/ZL ratio
Distance Relay Fundamentals

Distance Relay Design

All distance relays compare voltages and currents to create impedance-plane and directional characteristics. Electromechanical relays do so by developing torques. Most static-analog implementations use coincidence-timing techniques.
Numerical techniques are the newest way to implement distance and directional relay elements. These relays use torque-like products and other methods to accomplish their operating characteristics. How do these new techniques relate to the classical electro-mechanical and static phase-angle comparators?
This paper presents basic distance and directional element design. A large emphasis is placed on relating the newer digital and numerical methods to the established electromechanical and static-analog methods of designing relay elements. In addition, we discuss:
A new method for characterizing distance elements; i.e., equations for mapping points on a relay characteristic onto a single point on a number line.
How multi-input comparators can be viewed as a family of two-input comparators.
Which characteristics result from various combinations of comparator inputs.
Classical element-security problems and remedies.
A new negative-sequence directional element.
A different approach to the load-encroachment problem.
Finally, we point out a problem with fault-type selection logic which uses the angle between the negative- and zero-sequence currents. It can select the wrong phase for certain resistive line-line-ground faults. We present a solution to this problem which compares ground and phase fault-resistance estimates
Distance Relay Design

Synchronous Generation in Distribution Systems

This article covers aspects of synchronous generation that affect the design and operation of distribution networks. Of special concern are the limitations imposed by voltage, current and other constraints at various points in the network when generation is connected at selected locations. In a distribution system, individual generator capacity is small in comparison with the distribution supply capacity. This generation can range from a few hundred kilowatts to over 50 megawatts. As
the capacity increases, the technical design considerations, particularly feeder loading and voltage conditions become more critical.
For the purposes of definition in this article:
• small generators are those with a capacity of less than 1MW
• medium sized generators have a capacity of between 1-5MW
• large generators have a capacity in excess of 5MW
A synchronous generator driven by a prime mover affects the dynamics of the power system and is often part of an industrial co-generation process. Prime movers for synchronous machines are typically steam turbine, water turbine or reciprocating engine. Synchronous generators that are part of wind generation schemes are isolated from the distribution feeders by converter systems and are not considered further.
Synchronous Generation in Distribution Systems

Building An AM Radio RLC Circuits

Earlier this semester you created electric fields by transferring charges (from friction and electrostatic induction). You also employed circuits to light up bulbs, create magnetic fields, and run electric motors. In this lab you will build a circuit to detect radio waves, which are used in every form of wireless communication – radio broadcasts, WiFi networks, cell phones, Bluetooth...even garage door openers and keyless car remotes. Radio waves belong to the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which has the longest wavelengths. Note that this also corresponds to the lowest frequencies, since the product of the wavelength and frequency of these waves equals the speed of light
Building An AM Radio RLC Circuits

Design Principles for High Frequency Power Transformer Materials

Design Principles for High Frequency Power Transformer Materials:
To meet the size and weight require~uents of modern switching power supplies new ferrite materials with low losses in a 100kHz-1MHz frequency range are needed. Examplary the development of an improved version of the well known material N49 [I I designated as N49i is discussed. Tl~e development of this new material results substantially in the reduction of the core losses (by aho~rt 20%) compared with tile conventional one within the frequency range around 5001;Hz at operating
temperature area around 80°C. h1 connection with N49 considerations i~nportant design principles in high perfo~mance power fenites are discussed generally. This is concerned wit11 a detailed lineup of suitable materials for the frequency range from 100m ep to I MHz. The perfonnance of power ferrites N87, N49 and N59 is judged by its maximum fxB-product for a given dissipation level, a good measure for the attainable tluoughput power for a design. It is shown that the improved N49 version leads to an optimized gradation between the ~nater~als N87, N49 and N59. Fnthennore the con-elations between frequency dependent ~naxi~ninn of perfonnance factor, gram size and AC-resistance behaviour are analysed
Design Principles for High Frequency Power Transformer Materials

Understanding Electric Meter

To understand how an electric meter works, you must first have a basic understand-
ing of electricity. Electric energy is measured in watts and metered and billed in kilo watt-hours. A watt equals the voltage multiplied by the amperage or current. If electric energy was a stream, the voltage would be the width and depth of the stream.
The amperage would be how fast the stream is flowing. Wattage is simply how much
water is in the stream at a given time. Watt-hours is how much water passes through
the stream in an hour’s time. For example, if a 120v electric motor draws 10 amps,
the connected load would be 1200 watts or 1.2 kilowatts. The motor would con-
sume 1.2 kWh over a one-hour period and 12 kWh over a ten-hour period.

Electric meters work very much like an electric motor. The energy entering the
home is passed through a set of small wires surrounding a shaft. The current passing through the wires creates an electric field that "induces" the shaft to turn. The shaft is connected to a graduated disk and a set of gears that turn an set of numbers much like an odometer in a car. A set number of revolutions of the large disk corresponds to one kilowatt-hour
Understanding Electric Meter

Electric Meter Reading

Double-checking the numbers on your electric meter never hurts, especially when the beneits involve saving energy and money.By learning how to read your electric meter,
you can monitor your usage and avoid being overcharged or undercharged by the utility company.
The glass-enclosed electric meter is almost always round in shape and found outside the home. The electric meter has four round clock like dials with digits 0-9 displayed on each one and a spinning disk beneath them which, speeds up and slows
down as usage increases and decreases.

You can igure out how to read your electric meter by using the following steps:
1. Locate the four dials in the row and always remember to read them from left to right. Also be aware that the pointer on the irst dial of an electric meter circles clockwise, the second dial counterclockwise, the third clockwise and the fourth counterclockwise.
2. Notice the pointer in each dial and write down the number indicated by its position. When the pointer is between two numbers, the reading for the dial is the smaller of the two numbers
Electric Meter Reading

Basic Electrical Safety

Basic Electrical Safety
The concepts discussed herein are intended to provide explanation and clarification of basic electrical safety for individuals who have little or limited training or familiarity with the field of electricity. An understanding of these principles is essential for comprehension of OSHA's Electrical Safety Standards.
Theory of Electricity ...................................... 1
Hazards of Electricity .................................... 25
Effects of Electricity on the Human Body .................... 28
Common Workplace Circuits .............................. 33
Electrical Protective Devices ............................... 35
Grounding ............................................. 40
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters ........................... 46
Reversed Polarity

There are three basic electrical hazards that cause injury and death: shock, arc-flash, and arc-blast.

Shock Current can pass through the human body’s nervous or vascular systems, and across the surface of the body. The current required to light a 71/2 W, 120 V lamp, passing through the chest, can cause death. Of those killed while working on voltages below 600 V, half were intentionally working on "hot" energized equipment. Most electrocutions can be avoided with proper training, planning, job preparation, procedures, and equipment.

Arc-flash (extremely high temperature conductive plasma and gases resulting from an arc fault incident). As many as 80 percent of all electrical injuries are burns resulting from an arc-flash contact and ignition of flammable clothing. Arc temperatures can reach 35,000 F four times hotter than the sun’s surface. Arc-flash can cause second and third degree burns.

Arc-blast (pressure wave caused by the rapid expansion of gases and conducting material with high flying molten materials and shrapnel). An arc-blast may result in a violent explosion of circuit components and thrown shrapnel. The blast can destroy structures, and knock workers from ladders or across a room. The blast can rupture eardrums and collapse lungs.

Training, planning, and writing procedures

Provide training. Obviously, an important aspect of electrical safety is training. To be qualified, workers need training on the tasks and procedures (such as lockout/tagout procedures) that are essential to conducting their work in a safe manner.

Plan every job. Take the time to prepare a work plan that considers all possible eventualities. Before starting the job, think about each step and try to visualize the potential for hazards.

Anticipate unexpected results. When thinking about a job, break each task into small steps. Understand that plans can change, so be ready to modify the plan. Make sure that everyone involved in the job is working according to the same plan. Whenever work is required near an electrical hazard, a written plan is needed to outline the scope of the job.

Use procedures as tools. Procedures are the best way to help you prepare, execute, and complete a job. Like any tools, make sure procedures are maintained.

Identify the hazard. After your work plan is complete, review each step. Consider that the equipment might be perfectly safe under normal conditions and very unsafe when systems are not working properly. Also consider potential hazards that may be unrelated to electrical energy.

Assess people’s abilities. Any person assigned to tasks associated with electrical energy must be qualified and trained for the job at hand. He or she must be able to identify electrical hazards, avoid exposure to those hazards, and understand the potential results of all action taken.

Providing an electrically safe work condition

Use the right tool for the job. Use the appropriate tools for the job at hand, keep them accessible and in good working condition. Using a screwdriver for a job that requires a fuse puller is an invitation to an accident.

Isolate the equipment. The best way to avoid an accident is to reduce exposure to the hazards present. Keep doors closed. Keep barricades in place. Install temporary voltage-rated blankets covering exposed live parts. Put the equipment in a safe working condition prior to performing maintenance. Lock out the disconnect.

Protect the person. Use the proper personal protection equipment for the job. This may include safety glasses or goggles, head protection, voltage-rated gloves, safety belts and harnesses, or flame-resistant clothing.

Minimize the hazard. If it is impossible to establish an electrically safe work environment, be sure to shut down every possible energy source. Understand that sometimes a de-energized circuit can become re-energized and do something to lessen the risk.

Audit these principles. A principle is something you believe in enough to be willing to do. Review these principles often; add to them as needed.


The Lockout/Tagout Standard was created to help reduce the death and injury rate caused by the unexpected energization or start-up of machines or the release of stored energy. Normal production operations, cords and plugs under exclusive control, and hot tap operations are not covered. This standard applies to energy sources such as electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, chemical, nuclear, and thermal.

Procedures for applying the lock/tag:

1. Before the shutdown, know the unit and power sources

2. Power down the equipment

3. Isolate the power source(s)

4. Apply the lock and/or tag

5. Use proper techniques, personal protective equipment, and test measuring devices to verify that the electrical circuit is de-energized

6. Release residual energy

7. Try to power up

Procedure for removing the lock/tag:

1. Inspect machine and/or equipment

2. Give notification to personnel

3. Remove the lockout/tagout device

National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA 70E

There are a number of important electrical industry consensus standards that have indirect or direct impact on human safety. NFPA 70E, the "Standard for Electrical Requirements for Employee Workplaces," is one of the most important. This standard focuses on protecting people and identifies requirements that are considered necessary to provide a workplace that is generally free from electrical hazards
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Remote Control Using Mobile phone

Mobile phone can serve as powerful tool for world-wide communication. A system is developed to remotely monitor process through spoken commands using mobile. Mel cepstrum features are extracted from spoken words. Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network is used for recognition of various words used in the command.
The accuracy of spoken commands is about 98%. A text message is generated and sent to control system mobile in form of SMS. On receipt of SMS, control system mobile
informs AVR micro-controller based card, which performs specified task. The system alerts user in case of occurrence of any abnormal conditions like power failure, loss of control, etc. Other applications where this approach can be extended are also discussed. Index Termsņ Mobile phone, Short Messaging Services (SMS), AT commands, Mel coefficients, LVQ, AVR microcontroller

Index Termsņ Mobile phone, Short Messaging Services (SMS), AT commands, Mel coefficients, LVQ, AVR microcontroller
Remote Control Using Mobile phone

Circuit Breaker Basics

A circuit breaker has two primary functions:
1. to provide a nonautomatic means to energize and de-energize the circuit
2. to open automatically to protect the circuit from damage due to an overcurrent condition. In other words, a circuit breaker must be able to be switched on and off, and it must open automatically during an overcurrent condition. In order to open automatically, circuit breakers are equipped with some type of tripping mechanism. Some circuit breakers employ electro mechanical tripping mechanisms, some use hydromechanical tripping mechanisms, and some use electronic tripping mechanisms

Electronic trip circuit breakers from Square D Company use the MICROLOGIC® tripping
system, which includes current sensors, a microprocessor-based trip unit and a tripping solenoidElectronic trip molded case circuit breakers are designed to meet UL489, Underwriters Laboratories Standard for Safety for Molded-Case Circuit Breakers and Circuit Breaker Enclosures

In most cases, the basic overcurrent protection provided by standard thermal-magnetic circuit breakers will meet the requirements of the electrical system design. In some cases, however, basic overcurrent protection might not be enough.
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GPRS wireless solutions for control systems

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. It is often described as “2.5G”, that is, a technology
between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. It provides moderate speed data transfer, by using unused TDMA channels in the GSM network. The maturity of the GPRS system has made it suitable for use as a transport medium for remote monitoring of utility assets such as pipelines, dams, pumping stations and where network flow and pressure measurement is required across a wide area (for example, district or nationally).

GPRS is different from the older GSM Circuit Switched Data (or CSD) connections that have been popular in the last few years. In CSD, a data connection establishes a circuit, and reserves the full bandwidth of that circuit during the lifetime of the connection. GPRS is packet-switched which means that multiple users share the same transmission channel, only transmitting when they have data to send. This means that the total available bandwidth can be immediately dedicated to those users who are actually sending at any given moment, providing higher utilisation where users only send or receive data intermittently. Web browsing, receiving e-mails as they arrive and instant messaging are examples of uses that require intermittent data transfers, which benefit from sharing the available bandwidth
GPRS wireless solutions for control systems

SPICE-Compatible Thermal Simulation

Electromigration (EM) is themain reliability concern and will
become a more limiting factor of IC designs. The power generated by self-heating effect in interconnects only contributes a small part of the chip power consumption. However, the impacts of thermal effects on the reliability of interconnects are serious. Therefore, EM must be addressed together with a thermal reli- ability modeling and is recognized in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2002 update as one of the difficult challenges [1]. In order to diagnose the thermal reliability and improve the design quality, an efficient chip-level three-dimensional (3-D) thermal simulator is crucial to success for the VLSI designs
There are some challenges for the thermal modeling and simulation. First, the uniform heat distribution in a chip does not guarantee the uniform temperature profile due to the complex 3-D nature of heat spreading and the complicated boundary conditions. Simulation runtime and memory usage are another issues due to the large size of integrated circuit systems. Several approaches have been proposed. A full-chip thermal simulation was presented in [5] solving function-block size problem. The
finite difference method (FDM) with equivalent RC model has been presented [6] [7]. However, due to the large size of matrix, the direct matrix-solving algorithms have runtime and memory usage problems for large scale systems. A thermal simulation method based on model reduction was presented to improve the runtime [8]. However, the bottleneck in such method is that the number of input sources can cause big Krylov subspace
SPICE-Compatible Thermal Simulation

High Voltage Line Becomes a Power Distributor

The high line voltage passes over the head but we don’t have electricity to have our
mill functioned, we continue to live without the power! In many developing
countries, we have a lot of high lines voltage which cross many regions to supply
electricity to the main towns or connect to networks the distanced electric stations.
These booked lines for supplying electricity to big towns cross a lot of villages
whose people broadly poor hope to be supplied with electricity without a suitable
solution. However it seems very deplorable that the power conducted by these lines
doesn’t profit to surrounding population. Unfortunately, for these villages, the use
of classical stations is too expensive to the power distributors because of high cost of investment and production for these potential scattered consumers with the
feeble demand of electricity

This paper presents the original solution, settled in 2002 in one of the village
located in Congo Brazzaville, and continues to function correctly. It is a new power
transformer with one phase called PLX which is connected on one phase of the
high line voltage 220kV and which produces extraordinary the low voltage 230 V
directly useful by the rural population. This conceived sample for the rural
electrification has been dimensioned for the power of 50kVA. A cheap and
resistant advice! It requires a large popularization and mainly in sub saharian
Africa that has got many opportunities. Outside the role of conduction of the
power, the high line voltage distributes it

index terms:Rural electric distribution, One phase transformer, Voltage measurement
High Voltage Line Becomes a Power Distributor

Transformers Troubleshooting Procedure

If the neon is OUT and the primary power is ON when you arrive on-site, do not turn the primary power OFF until you look at the diagnostic LED on the end of the transformer. This is important since the fault that originally caused the sign outage may have disappeared, but the transformer tripped OFF before the fault cleared (a “transient” ground fault).
Before working on the sign check if it is ON, OUT, or flickering.
Never change or repair any transformer wiring without first removing primary power from the transforme

Tubing OUT, LED 4-pulsing

Primary voltage is greater than 140 volts for a 120 VAC transformer, or greater that 324 VAC for a 277 volt transformer. A 120 VAC
transformer might be installed on a 240 or 277 volt circuit or the line voltage may need to be lowered by the electric company.

Tubing OUT, LED 2-pulsing or 3-pulsing

Always caused by one of two situations:

a. A short from sign GTO or tubing to the sign frame, conduit, or other point at or near ground potential (a “secondary circuit ground
fault”). This fault may be “transient.” (See introductory paragraph this page)

b. Line (“hot”) and neutral wires are reversed (i.e. polarity is reversed).

To find the fault:

• Remove and then reapply transformer primary power.
If the tubing now lights normally and the LED is continuously ON, a transient ground fault has occurred. This is usually caused
by build up of insects, a rain downpour, inadequate clearance between high voltage connections and the sign body, and so
forth. Check the sign for any of these conditions. Poor or non-existent primary grounding makes ground fault detection far
more likely to occur. If the LED was originally 3-pulsing the transformer is poorly grounded – make sure you have a good
ground connection. If the LED continues to 2- or 3-pulse go to the next step.

• Remove primary power and disconnect both GTO cables from the transformer. Reapply primary power. What is the LED
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HT-2811 Ding— Dong door bell.

The HT- 2811 is a CMOS LSI chip specially designed for the application ofDing— Dong door bell. It requir very low nombers of external component andprovide low cost, high quality dual tone Ding- Dong sound. The IC is verysuitable for door bell application.B. Features —* CMOS Metal Gate process.* Operating voltage : Z4V~3.3V.* Low stand-by current : la A typically at VDD=3V.' Good sound quality, (dual tone)* envelop adjustable by external RC
HT-2811 Ding— Dong door bell.

DC-DC converters

DC-DC converters are electronic devices used whenever
we want to change DC electrical power efficiently from
one voltage level to another. They’re needed because unlike
AC, DC can’t simply be stepped up or down using a
transformer. In many ways, a DC-DC converter is the DC
equivalent of a transformer.
Typical applications of DC-DC converters are where 24V
DC from a truck battery must be stepped down to 12V DC
to operate a car radio, CB transceiver or mobile phone;
where 12V DC from a car battery must be stepped down
to 3V DC, to run a personal CD player; where 5V DC on a
personal computer motherboard must be stepped down to
3V, 2V or less for one of the latest CPU chips; where the
340V DC obtained by rectifying 240V AC power must be
stepped down to 5V, 12V and other DC voltages as part of
a PC power supply; where 1.5V from a single cell must be
stepped up to 5V or more, to operate electronic circuitry;
where 6V or 9V DC must be stepped up to 500V DC or
more, to provide an insulation testing voltage; where 12V
DC must be stepped up to +/-40V or so, to run a car hifi
amplifier’s circuitry; or where 12V DC must be stepped up
to 650V DC or so, as part of a DC-AC sinewave inverter.
DC-DC converters